Noisy Data strategy testing

Algorithmic trading adds noise to the markets we have known. So why not add some noise to your historic market data? This way you can check if your algorithmic trading strategies are fit for the future. Learn how to generate noisy data and how to test your strategies for stability in a noisy market.

Synthetic market data?

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Kahler’s fair bet volatility

Volatility is a measure of risk. It describes how far a commodity will most probably move within a given period of time. The most common measure for volatility is historical volatility. But I do not like the complicated formula for standard deviation.

There has to be a better way to explain and calculate volatility….

Implied Volatility

The options market has got a perfect measure for volatility. Done without formulas, just by demand and supply. And as I believe in efficient markets, the option markets fair price for volatility will be my starting point.

To get the price for volatility at the option market you just have to place  a bet. Assume you want to know the (expected) volatility for the next 30 days, then you would just add the price for an at the money put and call with 30 days to expiry. Option traders call this bet a straddle, and you would win if the market moves more than the price you have payed for the (european style) put and call.

The fair price for a volatility bet

Implied volatility and this Straddle bet is the starting point to calculate my own volatility measure.

The fair price for this bet is, when neither the buyer nor the seller of the bet has got an advantage. In the long run it should be a zero sum game game for both of them. Calculating the fair bet price for a straddle is the idea behind my volatility measure.

Think about a simple coin flip game. If you bet on head you can either win 1€ if head is up or nothing if tail comes on top. What would be the fair price for such a bet?

As head and tail got the same probability, the expected return of a bet on head’s up would be 0.5€. If I would sell you a bet on the next coin flip, I would charge you this 0.5€ to make it a fair bet. So you would either lose the 0.5€ if tail’s up, or win 1€ -0.5€ if head’s up. In the long run this would be a zero sum game for both of us. Do the same thing for the tail is up bet. It also got a value of 0.5€.

Historical Volatility vs. Kahler’s Volatility:

Historical volatility uses standard deviation of daily log returns to describe the volatility of the market. The standard deviation of this +1 -1 coin flip experiment would be 1€. The same would be true if you would buy a head’s up and a tail’s up bet; it would also cost you 1€. So for this simple example the fair bet based volatility is the same as the historical volatility.

But the market is not a coin flip. There will be some differences between historical volatility and KVOL fair bet based volatility.

KVOL vs. historical volatility:

The chart shows you a comparison between KVOL (blue) and historical volatility (standard deviation). On the chart shown above both calculate the volatility for 10 day returns, using the previous 30 bars as data sample.

As you can see historical volatility and KVOL are highly correlated.

But there are some major differences:

As an example in the end of 2017/beginning of 2018 KVOL starts to rise as the market is exploding to the upside. This is due to the virtual call used to calculate KVOL gains value. At the same time historical volatility stays low, as the market has got one direction and no setbacks.

Another advantage of KVOL is it`s response to singular events. As you can see on Sept. 3rd on the chart above the singular big red candle leads to a spike in historical volatility. It also raises KVOL, but not as much. As both indicators are calculated over the same period of bars they both got the same speed of change, but when you have a look at the scale you will see the advantage of KVOL: Historical volatility jumps from 0.2 to over 0.5 – it more than doubles just because of a single event. KVOL also raises,but only from 0.2 to 0.3.

For me this mild response to to singular events is the main advantage. Imagine a portfolio based on value at risk – would it really be useful to half the exposure just because historical volatility jumps after a single red candle?

KVOL  – Tradesignal Equilla Code:

The code to calculate KVOL is simple and straightforward.

The inputs:

multi: just a multiplier, like you can display 1 or 2 standard deviations..

datapoints: The number of bars used to calculate KVOL

returnperiod: calculate the volatility for 1,2,3… bars

showresult: show the result as a percentage of the underlying or as an absolute number

show: show either kvol or the rank of  kvol within the last 100 bars. This gives an idea if volatility is high or low

Meta: subchart(true);
Inputs: multi(1.0), Datapoints(30), returnperiod(5), showresult(percent, absolute), show(result,rank);
Variables:Kvol, i, rp,rc, rpsum, rcsum, call, put, hh,ll;


for i =0 to datapoints-1 begin // loop over last bars
  rc=maxlist((close[i]-close[i+returnperiod])/close[i+returnperiod],0); // % return of call
  rp=maxlist((close[i+returnperiod]-close[i])/close[i+returnperiod],0); // % return of put
  rcsum=rcsum+rc; // sum of all %returns over time

if show=result then drawline(multi*iff(showresult=percent,100*Kvol,Kvol*close),"KVOL");

if show=rank and (hh-ll)>0 then drawline(100-100*(hh-kvol)/(hh-ll),"rank");


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A graphical approach to indicator testing

A graphical approach to indicator testing

The first step in algorithmic strategy design usually is to find some indicators which give you an edge and tell you something about tomorrow’s market behaviour. You could use a lot of statistics to describe this edge, but I like to take a graphical approach in indicator testing first, and only later on worry about the maths and statistics.

Scatter Charts

A scatter chart is a simple to read chart style to see the correlation between two input values. A regression line on the scatter chart gives you a visual idea if the two securities are positively or negatively correlated, the “cloud structure” of the scatter points tell you if this correlation is tight or loose.

This sample scatter shows the correlation between the DAX and DOW levels, and it can be easily seen that these two markets are tightly correlated in a positively way.

The horizontal scale is used for the second security (DAX), the vertical scale is used for the first security (DOW). This chart type is predefined in Tradesignal, just drag&drop it onto the securities on the chart and select the right amount of data to get the analysis you want to see. (eg. 2000-now). If you see a tight and positive correlation like on the chart above, It might be used to select the instrument you want to trade. If market A is easier to predict than market B, select A.

Scatter on Indicators

Although a scatter chart is usually used to show the correlation between two markets, it can also be used to show the correlation between two indicators.

The chart above shows the correlation between digital stochastic and momentum. Have a look at the clustering of points in on the right side of the scatter, a high level in digital stochastic usually goes with a high momentum. This insight enables you to get rid of momentum, as digital stochastic is easier to read than the shaky momentum. Less indicators = less parameters = less curve fitting.

Scatter prognosis

Doing this analysis and getting rid of parameters is great if you want to minimise the dangers of curve fitting, but it does not tell you if your indicator is of any use at all, when it come to describing tomorrows move of the market. Surely it is valuable insight that a high level of stochastics corresponds to a high momentum, but does a high momentum today also mean that the market will move up tomorrow? And this question about tomorrow is the key question I ask myself when searching for some edge.

To get a glimpse on the prognosis quality of an indicator we will have to add some colour to our scatter chart. This colour tells me what the market has done after a specific indicator level has been reached. Green for an up move, red for a down move, black for not decided by now.

This chart shows the prognosis quality of the stochastic indicator. The left chart shows the 1 day prognosis of a 5 day stochastic, the right chart gives you the 5 day prognosis of a 21 day stochastic. Observe the clustering of the red and green dots. (black for not decided by now) As you can see on the left chart, the one day prognosis using a 5 day stochastic is not the thing to do. Regardless if stochastic is high or low, you get a nice mixture of red and green dots. This means the market, at a given stochastic level, sometimes moved up, sometimes moved down. Not this behaviour is not very useful for trading. Only in the extreme, near 0 and 100, this indicator seems to implicate a bearish next day movement.

The right chart, showing the longer term prognosis of a long term stochastic seems to be more useful. High levels of the indicator also show positive returns on the 5 days after, unfortunately you can not reverse the logic, as low indicator levels give a rater mixed prognosis. This visual analysis can give you an idea which areas of the indicator might be useful for further analysis.

A one dimensional analysis like on the chart above could also be done without this scatter chart. Going from one dimension to two dimensions is more useful, as it directly can be translated to do a kNN machine learning trading strategy. Have a look at the following chart. It shows the scatter of two indicators and the implication on the next days market move.

Lets start with he right chart. As you can see the red and green dots are evenly distributed, meaning there is no useful correlation between the used indicators and the movement of the market on the day after. If you would use a kNN algorithm with these two indicators, I would bet it would not return great results. Even if you would get a positive return, it might just be a lucky hit or curve fitting.

The opposite is true for the chart on the left. Here you can see some nice clustering of the red and green dots. Low indicator levels seem to predict a bearish move, high indicator levels result in a bullish move on the next day. A distribution like this is the perfect starting point for investing some time in a kNN machine learning  trading strategy. The kNN algorithm would give you a strong prognosis with high or low indicator levels, and most probably only a weak or no prognosis when the indicators are around 50. The returns will be stable, no curve fitting problems should be expected.


Using a scatter chart can give you a nice visual indication if your indicator might be useful for a prognosis of the next days market move. This is valuable insight, as you can see the whole data universe with one glimpse, even before you do a thoroughly statistical analysis. Numbers can deceive you, pictures usually tell the complete story.

Tradesignal Equilla code:




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Machine learning: kNN algorithm explained

I always thought that inspiration and experience are key factors in trading. But every time my chess computer beats me without any inspiration, just by brute force, I get my doubts. This article will be about a brute force approach in trading. The kNN algorithm.

Rule based trading

Rule based trading – algorithmic trading, is just a name for a set of if..then rules which will define the machines trading decisions. e.g. if the market crosses below the 200 day line, then short 100 contracts. If the market rises by 2% then exit the position.  Easy stuff like this… (for the beginning)

This article will be a short introduction to machine learning. I will use a classic algorithm of machine learning to let my computer find a prediction for tomorrows market move. In the meantime I’ll have a glass of wine with some friends and let the machine do the job; At least that’s the idea, but can it be that simple in real life trading?

Unsupervised machine learning – kNN algorithm

The kNN algorithm is one of the most simple machine learning algorithms. Learning, in this case, is only a nice sounding label, in reality kNN is more of a classification algorithm.

This is how it woks:

The scatter chart above is a visualisation of a two dimensional kNN data set. For this article I used a classical indicators of technical analysis to do the prediction: a long-term and a short-term RSI indicator. The dots on the two dimensional scatter chart represent the historic RSI values at a given point of time.

Now have a look at the fat circled point. This point represents today’s value. It means, that today’s RSI1 has a value of 63, and RSI2 got a value of 70.

Additionally to the position on the chart the dots have got colours. A green dot means that the market moved up on the following day, a red dot shows a falling market on the day after.

We already know what has happened in history, so it is easy to colour the historic dots. But we do not know the colour of today’s dot, as it is not known where tomorrow’s market will end.

Based on the chart above, will it be a red or green dot? Will tomorrow be up or down?  Should I go long or should I go short?

kNN – k nearest neighbours

To do a prediction of tomorrow’s market move, the kNN algorithm uses the historic data shown on the scatter plot above and finds the k-nearest neighbours of today’s RSI values. As you can see, our current fat point is surrounded by red dots. This means, that every time the two RSI values have been in this area, the market fell on the day after. That’s why today’s data point is classified as red. Wish it would be that easy all the times…

Call it classification or prediction, the two dimensional kNN algorithm just has a look on what has happened in the past when the two indicators had a similar level. It then looks at the k nearest neighbours, sees their state and thus classifies today point.

kNN as Tradesignal Equilla Code

In this article I would like to show you an implementation with the Tradesignal programming language Equilla.

To implement the algorithm in Tradesignal we first have to do the shown scatter plot. The algorithm stores the values in an array.

8/9 calculates the value of the fast and slow RSI indicators

12/13 looks what will happen on the day after (for the training data set)

16/17/18 stores everything in an array.

The next task to complete is to calculate the distances of today’s RSI point to all the historic points in the training data set.

23/27 calculates the euclidean distance of today’s point to all historic points, line 29 then creates a sorted list of all these distances to find the k nearest historic data points in the training data set.

Nearly done. The next step is just to find out what classification (colour) the nearest points have got and use this information to create a prediction for tomorrow. This is done in lines 33 to 35

Have a look at the scatter chart at the beginning. If this would be the data stored in our training data set, the prediction, using the 5 nearest neighbours, would be -5. All the 5 nearest neighbours of our current data point are red.

Now that we got a prediction for tomorrow, we need to make use of this prediction and trade it. The returns then will show if everything works as predicted.

Over here I just do a simple long/short interpretation of the prediction, but of course you could also use the quality of the prediction (+5 or +1?) in some sort of way. Position sizing…?

kNN algorithm performance

The next chart shows 2000 bars of daily Brent data. It uses a 14 and 28 day RSI to predict the next day’s move in the Brent oil market. The training was on the first half of the data set, and the 5 nearest neighbours did the classification.

Underneath the chart the returns of this test are shown. (strategy equity). On the bottom of the char you see the two RSI indicators used for the generation of the prediction / buy-sell command.

kNN algorithm – conclusion

The kNN algorithm offers a framework to test all kind of indicators easily to see if they have got any predictive value. Judging on the shown graph it seems to work. It seems to be possible to use these two RSI indicators to predict tomorrow’s Brent move.

But unfortunately this also could be just completely useless curve fitting. It is you who has to select the indicators and their periods and you will have to define if you like the outcome of a selected parameter set. To many degrees of freedom to be sure. The kNN algorithm is useful, but its application in finance has to be treated carefully. Otherwise bad surprises are guaranteed

Not everything can be done by brute force, inspiration and experience are key factors in finance…




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Ranking: percent performance and volatility

When ranking a market analysts usually pick the percent performance since a given date as their key figure. If a stock has been at 100 last year and trades at 150 today, percent performance would show you a 50% gain (A). If another stock would only give a 30% gain (B), most people now would draw the conclusion that stock A would have been the better investment. But does this reflect reality?

Percent Performance and Volatility

In reality and as a trader I would never just buy and hold my position, I would always adjust my position size somehow related to the risk in it. I like instruments that rise smoothly, not the roller coaster ones which will only ruin my nerves. So ranking a market solely by percent performance is an useless statistic for me.

Lets continue with our example from above: if stock A, the one who made 50% has had a 10% volatility, and stock B, the 30% gainer, only had a 5% volatility, I surely would like to see stock B on top of my ranking list, and not the high vola but also high gain stock A.

Risking the same amount of money would have given me a bigger win with stock B.

Combining Performance and Volatility

To get stock B up in my ranking list I will have to combine the absolute gain with the market volatility in between. This can be done quite simple. Just add up the daily changes of the stock, normalized by market volatility.Have a look at the formula of this new indicator:

index(today)=index(yesterday)+(price(today)-price(yesterday))/(1.95*stdev(price(yesterday)-price(2 days ago),21))

In plain English: Today’s Vola Return Index equals yesterdays Vola Return Index plus the daily gain normalized by volatility

So if the index has been at 100, the volatility (as a 95% confidence interval over 21 days) is 1 and the stock made 2 points since yesterday, then today’s index would be 100 + 2/1 = 3

Vola Return Index vs. Percent Return Index

Lets have a look at a sample chart to compare the 2 ranking methods. I therefore picked the J.P.Morgan stock.

The upper indicator shows you a percent gain index. It sums up the daily percent gains of the stock movement, basically giving you an impression what you would have won when you would have kept your invested money constant.

The indicator on the bottom is the Vola Return Index. It represents your wins if you would have kept the risk invested into the stock constant. (=e.g. always invest 100$ on the 21 day 95%confidence interval of the daily returns)

Have a closer look at the differences of these two indicators up to October 2016. JPM is slightly up, and that`s why the percent change index is also in the positive area. During the same time the Vola Return Index just fluctuates around the zero line, as the volatility of JPM picked up during this period of time. To keep your risk invested constant over this period of time you would have downsized your position when JPMs volatility picked up, usually during a draw down. No good.

The same can be observed on the upper chart, showing the last months movements of the index. Right now, after the recent correction the percent change index is, like the JPM stock, up again. On the other side the Vola Return Index is still down, due to the rising volatility in JPM.

Vola Return Index – Ranking

Lets put this to a test and rank the 30 Dow Jones industrial stocks according to the percent return index and using my Vola Return Index as a comparison, calculated since 01/01/2015.

The first three stocks are the same, they got the highest vola and highest percent return. But JPM and Visa would get a different sorting. Just see how low the JPM Vola Index is, it would not be the 4th best stock.

Percent returns says JPM and Visa are abou the same, only the Vola Return Index shows that VISA would have been the better investment vehicle compared to JPM. But see for yourself on the chart…


Make sure your indicators show what you actually can do on the market. There is no use in just showing the percent gains of a stock if you trade some kind of VAR adjusted trading style.

Keeping you risk under control is one of the most important things in trading, and using the Vola Return Index instead of just plotting the percent performance can give you some key insights and keep you away from bad investment vehicles. Also have a look at this stock picking portfolio based on similar ideas.


Tradesignal Equilla Code for Vola Return Index:



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EEX Phelix Base Yearly – Buy Wednesday, short Thursday?

When it comes to simple trading strategies, the day of the week is surely one of the best things to start with. That’s nothing new when it comes to equity markets. Everybody knows about the calendar effects, based on when the big funds get and invest their money. I do not know about any fundamental reason for the day-of-week effect in German power trading, but is seems to be a fruitful approach.

First of all I have to point out that it is not only the day of the week which is important. A strategy that just buys on Wednesdays and sells 1 or 2 days later would be doomed. But if you add a little filter which confirms the original idea, you will end up with a profitable trading strategy.

This filter will just be a confirmation of the expected move: If you suspect that Wednesday ignites a bullish movement, then wait until Thursday and only buy if the market exceeds Wednesdays high. Same for the short side, wait for a new low before you enter!

Have a look at the chart. The strategy shown buys on Thursdays if Wednesdays high is exceeded. The position is closed 2 days after the entry.

If you run a simple test which day of the week is the best to get ready for a long trade the day after then the next chart shows the return on account of the strategy using data from 2012 up to now: (exit one day after entry)

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Digitale Stochastic

Die slow stochastic ist ein alter Begleiter für alle Trader. Zuverlässig zeigt dieser Indikator die Überkauft und Überverkauft Bereiche an. Doch leider hat der Indikator einen entscheidenden Nachteil – er hat einen sehr unruhigen Kurvenverlauf.

Stochastic Digital – mehr als nur Überkauft / Überverkauft


Die Digitale Stochastic glättet die normale Stochastic nicht nur, sie sorgt mit einer digitalisierung auch für einen ansprechenden Kurvenverlauf.

Hier ein Beispiel für den DAX Future im Stundenchart.

Digitale Stochastic DAX Stunde

Unter der digitalen Stochastic sehen Sie die altbekannte slow Stochastic mit der selben Parametereinstellung. Der Chart ist grün gefärbt wenn die digitale Stochastic steigt, ansonsten ist der Chart rot hinterlegt.

Digitale Stochastic Trading

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Ichimoku Scanner

Der Ichimoku Kinko Hyo ist in Japan einer der beliebtesten Indikatoren. Es ist ein Indikator der Informationen über Trendrichtung und Trendstärke kombiniert.

Zudem gibt er schon heute seinen zukünftigen Wert an. Damit ist er ein Unikum unter den Chart Indikatoren.


Karin Roller Ichimoku Analyse

Wie dieser großartige Indikator interpretiert wird, habe ich hier aus der gestrigen DAX Tagesanalyse von Karin Rollers Webseite kopiert. Sie definiert im Wesentlichen 5 Kriterien nach denen der Ichimoku Indikator zu bewerten ist.

Ichimoku Scanner

Anhand dieser 5 Kriterien habe ich einen Oszillator entwickelt, der ihnen auf einen Blick zeigt, wie der Ichimoku Indikator aktuell zu interpretieren ist.

Dreht man die Logik dieser 5 Ichimoku Kriterien um, erhält man einen Oszillator der immer zwischen -5 und +5 pendelt. (Den Tradesignal Code dazu finden Sie am Ende des Artikels)

Neben dem absoluten Wert des Indikators ist natürlich auch seine Richtung von Interesse.  Sehen Sie am nächsten Bild, wie selbsterklärend die Interpretation dieses Ichimoku Oszillator ist.

DAX Ichimoku Chart

Aktuell steht der Oszillator, wie auch Karin Rollers Ichimoku Analyse, auf plus 5 – alles bullish.

Ichimoku DAX Scanner

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Opening Range Breakout

Das Opening Range Breakout System wurde im Magazin “Technical Analysis of Stocks&Commodities” im Juli 1994 besprochen, und wie es scheint, funktioniert es, zumindest ohne slippage uns Speasen, noch immer.

Ein Opening Range Breakout System von Perry Kaufmann.

Es wurde im Magazin “Technical Analysis of Stocks&Commodities” im Juli 1994 besprochen, und wie es scheint, funktioniert es noch immer. (ohne slippage) Auch Tony Crabel schrieb zu diesem Opening Breakout System im selben Magazin

Das System wartet die erste Handelsstunde ab und geht dann bei Erreichen eines neuen Hochs oder Tiefs  long oder short.  Die Einstiegs Order (Stop Buy / Stop Sell) wird nicht exakt auf das Hoch / Tief gelegt, sondern ein paar Punkte darüber /darunter. (hier 20 Ticks)

Tradesignal Programmierung des Opening Range Systems

Durch das laden von drei Zeitreihen, 10min, Stunden- und Tagesdaten gestaltet sich die Programmierung sehr einfach. Dies schränkt jedoch die Flexibilität deutlich ein.

Prinzipiell ist die Strategie der Afternoon Trader Strategie sehr ähnlich, sie weist auch mehr Flexibilität in der Programmierung auf. Auch der Artikel über Range Breaks im intraday Markt basiert auf einer ähnlichen Idee.

TSM(S) 1st hour breakout detail

Da die hier vorgestellte Systemversion  ursprünglich für dieTradestation 2000i in Easy Language geschrieben wurde, ist das Laden von 3 Zeitreihen ein wenig kompliziert gelöst. Aber es funktioniert.

Strategie Backtest mit adjustiertem DAX Future:

TSM(S) 1st hour breakout backtest

zum Opening Range Tradesignal Equilla Code Passwort “code”

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DAX Marktbreite und 200 Tage Linie

Bald ist es wieder so weit und der DAX steigt über seine 200 Tage Linie. Das wäre an und für sich nichts Besonderes, steigt oder fällt der DAX doch jeden Tag über irgendeinen gleitenden Durchschnitt, doch ist die 200 Tage Linie etwas besonders an sich: Sie ist ein selbst erfüllender Indikator!

 Bankberater, Bild, Hausfrauen

Wenn jemand eigentlich nichts über technische Analyse weiß, die 200 Tage Linie kennt er. Jeder Bankberater versucht damit seine Aktien zu verkaufen; Wenn der Markt über der 200 Tage Linie liegt soll das  ein bullishes Signal sein.

DAX Above 200 Day Average


Und in der Tat, da jeder diesen Indikator kennt, ist es tatsächlich ein bullishes Signal wenn der Markt über seiner 200 Tage Linie liegt, schlussendlich trauen sich dann alle die fast nix von technischer Analyse wissen in den Markt.

DAX Marktbreite

Um zu sehen ob so ein Schnitt des DAX über die 200 Tage Linie auch signifikant oder nur ein Strohfeuer ist, kann man die Marktbreite des Index untersuchen.

Marktbreite=Wie viel % der Aktien eines Index liegen über der 200 Tage Linie

Diesen Indikator sehen Sie unter dem DAX Chart abgebildet.

DAX Above 200 Day Average history

Allgemein gilt für die Interpretation, dass wenn der DAX über der 200 Tage Linie liegt und mehr als 50% der Aktien des DAX ebenfalls über der 200 Tage Linie liegen, man trendfolgend vorgehen kann. Wenn dann einmal 100% der Aktien über der 200 Tage Linie liegen ist die Blase meist zu Ende und man sollte die Position mit einem engen Stop absichern.

zum Tradesignal Equilla Code Passwort “code”

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Selbstlernende Handelssysteme

Ein jeder kennt die klassischen Indikatoren wie RSI oder Stochastic. Und ein jeder kennt die dazugehörigen Handelsanweisungen: Long, wenn überverkauft, Short wenn überkauft. Und zumindest im Lehrbuch funktioniert das auch. Aber wie sieht das ganze am realen Chart aus? Würden Sie dem Lehrbuch vertrauen und Ihren Kunden auch einen baldigen Kauf empfehlen wenn der RSI unter 20 liegt?

Testen anstatt zu studieren

Schön, wenn ein Indikator im Lehrbuch funktioniert, doch will ich hier ein Verfahren darstellen, bei dem der Indikator selbst angibt ob, wann und wie gut er funktioniert! Dazu habe ich mir für diesen Beitrag den RSI Indikator vorgenommen.

Zunächst wird der Wert des Indikators betrachtet, sowie, ob er steigt oder fällt. Mit diesen beiden Kriterien lässt sich der RSI einfach klassifizieren.

RSI Prognose

Dann erfolgt der eigentliche Backtest: Innerhalb der letzten 1000 Bars wird nun geschaut, wie sich der Markt bei einem gleichen Indikatorstand (zwischen 90 und 100) und Richtung (über Triggerlinie) verhalten hat.


Am Bild kam dies innerhalb der letzten 100 bars 36 mal vor. Dabei war die durchschnittliche Bewegung innerhalb der darauffolgenden 5 min DAX Futures Kerze -0.03%. Der RSI hat beim aktuellen Stand also eine negative Kurs Prognose.

Dass es auch nach dem nächsten bar statistisch nach unten geht, sieht man an den 5 Prognose Punkten am Chart. Sie zeigen, wie sich der Markt statistisch innerhalb der nächsten 5 Bars verhalten hat, unter der Bedingung, dass der RSI den aktuellen Stand und Richtung hatte.

Markt Performance als Indikator

Der obige Screenshot zeigt den Indikator und die Prognose für den kommenden bar (sowie die 4 darauf folgenden). Er zeigt jedoch nicht, wie sich diese Prognosen in der Vergangenheit verhalten haben, in welchen Bereichen der Indikator in der Vergangenheit seine höchste Aussagekraft hatte. Dies ist am nächsten Chart dargestellt.

RSI Prognose

Am Bild ist unter dem eigentlichen RSI seine aktuelle prognose für den nächsten Bar dargestellt. Um diese prognose ist ein Bollingerband gelegt, um so die Bereiche zu definieren, an welchen der RSI seine höchste Aussagekraft hat (= die stärkste Bewegung vorhersagt)

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Reality vs. Robert W. Colby, CMT

Dont`t believe!

Papier ist geduldig, darum ist es oft besser wenn man selbst testet bevor man ein veröffentlichtes Handelssystem mit seinem Geld ausprobiert. Heute geht es hier um einen Handelssystem out of sample Test

Ein schönes Beispiel dafür ist eine Strategie aus Robert Colbys Buch “The Encyclopedia of Technical Market Indicators“, 2nd edition, 2003, page 791ff.

Darin wird ein einfaches moving average crossover Systeme vorgestellt, welches anscheinend seit beinahe 100 Jahren phänomenale Gewinne verspricht.

Hier eine Kopie aus dem Buch:

colby wma strategy


Tradesignal Backtest

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RSI als intraday Candlestick

Der RSI – Relative Strength Indikator – ist ein Klassiker, Zeit für ein wenig Erneuerung.

RSI Classic: Intraday Bewegung geht verloren

Der RSI ist ein Linienindikator, basierend auf dem Schlusskurs der Kerze. So wird z.B. der 14 Tage RSI auf Basis der letzten 14 Tages Schlusskurse berechnet. Dies hat den großen Nachteil, dass der RSI im Lauf des Tages seinen Wert verändert. Für den aktuellen Wert am live Chart wird anstatt des (noch nicht bekannten) Schlusskurses des Tages der aktuelle Wert des Marktes verwendet.

RSI Intraday: Tagesverlauf darstellen

Mein RSI Candlestick Indikator bildet diesen Intradayverlauf des Tages ab. Dazu verwende ich einen Kerzenchart. Die Eröffnung der Kerze ist der Stand des RSI am Anfang der Kerze (des Tages…)

Hoch und Tief der Kerze geben die Höchst und Tiefstwerte des RSI im Verlauf der aktuellen Kerze an. Der Close der Kerze entspricht dem klassischen RSI auf Schlusskursbasis.

RSI Candlesick Indikator

Interpretation: Candlesick und RSI

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